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Ransomware: all you need to know about the modern digital plague

In the ever-evolving landscape of cyber security threats, one word strikes fear into the hearts of individuals, businesses, education, and governments alike: ransomware.

Ransomware is an insidious form of malware that has grown exponentially in recent years, wreaking havoc on organisations and individuals, causing financial losses, data breaches, and untold disruption.

In this blog, we will deep dive into the murky world of ransomware, exploring what it is, how it works, the consequences of falling victim to it, and the strategies for prevention and recovery.

Understanding ransomware

Ransomware is a malicious software that encrypts a victim's data or, in some cases, locks them out of their own computer systems. The attackers then demand a ransom, usually in cryptocurrency, in exchange for a decryption key or to regain access to their system.

This malicious software typically infiltrates systems through phishing emails, malicious downloads, or exploiting vulnerabilities in software.

Once inside, it swiftly encrypts files, rendering them inaccessible.

How ransomware works

Infiltration: Attackers use a variety of methods to infiltrate a target system. This can include social engineering tactics to trick users into downloading malicious files or exploiting known vulnerabilities in software or operating systems.

Encryption: Once inside the system, ransomware encrypts critical files and sometimes even the entire hard drive. This encryption process transforms the data into an unreadable format without the corresponding decryption key.

Ransom Demand: After successfully encrypting the data, the attackers present a ransom demand to the victim. This demand typically includes instructions on how to pay the ransom, often in cryptocurrency, to receive the decryption key.

Payment and Decryption: Victims are left with a difficult decision: pay the ransom or risk losing their data permanently. Many victims, fearing the loss of critical data or the potential public exposure of sensitive information, choose to pay the ransom. Upon payment, the attackers provide the decryption key, allowing the victim to regain access to their files.

Consequences of ransomware attacks

The impact of a ransomware attack can be devastating, encompassing both financial and reputational damage:

Financial Loss: Ransom payments can range from a few hundred dollars to millions, depending on the target and the data's value. Furthermore, there are additional costs associated with investigating and mitigating the attack.

Data Loss: Victims often lose access to critical data, including business records, customer information, and intellectual property. This loss can have long-lasting repercussions.

Operational Disruption: Ransomware can paralyse an organisation's operations, leading to downtime and productivity losses.

Reputation Damage: Publicly disclosing a ransomware attack can harm an organisation's reputation, eroding customer trust and potentially leading to legal consequences.

Prevention and recovery

While it is impossible to guarantee immunity from ransomware attacks, there are proactive steps individuals and organisations can take to minimise their risk and prepare for potential incidents:

Regular Backups: Maintain up-to-date backups of critical data offline or on a separate network. This allows for data recovery without paying a ransom.

Awareness Training: Educate employees about phishing and other common attack vectors. Awareness and caution can prevent many infections, and we offer Security Awareness Training to employees as one of our affordable services.

Patch and Update Software: Regularly update operating systems and software to fix known vulnerabilities.

Use Security Software: Employ robust antivirus and anti-malware solutions, along with intrusion detection systems.

Network Segmentation: Segment your network to limit the spread of malware in case of an infection.

Incident Response Plan: Develop a comprehensive incident response plan that includes communication strategies and procedures for dealing with a ransomware attack.

Should I pay the ransom?

Law enforcement does not encourage, endorse nor condone the payment of ransom demands. If you do pay the ransom:

  • there is no guarantee that you will get access to your data or computer

  • your computer will still be infected

  • you will be paying criminal groups

  • you're more likely to be targeted in future

For this reason, it is important that you always have a recent offline backup of your most important files and data.


Ransomware is a persistent and evolving threat that continues to plague individuals and organisations worldwide. Its impact is not limited to financial losses but extends to data security and reputation damage.

To combat this menace, vigilance, education, and proactive measures are essential. By implementing strong cyber security practices and disaster recovery plans, individuals and organisations can mitigate the risks posed by ransomware and minimise the potential fallout from an attack.



Report all Fraud and Cybercrime to Action Fraud by calling 0300 123 2040 or online. Forward suspicious emails to Report SMS scams by forwarding the original message to 7726 (spells SPAM on the keypad).



The contents of blog posts on this website are provided for general information only and are not intended to replace specific professional advice relevant to your situation. The intention of East Midlands Cyber Resilience Centre (EMCRC) is to encourage cyber resilience by raising issues and disseminating information on the experiences and initiatives of others. Articles on the website cannot by their nature be comprehensive and may not reflect most recent legislation, practice, or application to your circumstances. EMCRC provides affordable services and Trusted Partners if you need specific support. For specific questions please contact us by email.


EMCRC does not accept any responsibility for any loss which may arise from reliance on information or materials published on this blog. EMCRC is not responsible for the content of external internet sites that link to this site or which are linked from it.

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